Reply to ETHEL
Indeed, obesity has become a major public health concern among other chronic diseases such as hypertension. Moreover, obesity is becoming highly prevalent in the pediatric population, which pauses adverse outcomes. According to CDC (2021), in the United States alone, the prevalence of childhood obesity is 19.3% affecting over 14.4 million children, which is a very high number. Obesity in children can have effects that persist into adulthood, causing further health issues. Many people live a sedentary lifestyle, hence the increasing prevalence of obesity, a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular conditions, cancers, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. Physical activity is a preventive approach for many at-risk disorders and chronic conditions to prevent complications. Physical activity is beneficial for both mental health and physical health outcomes. People who are overweight can engage in physical activity to lose fat and avert obesity.
Before initiating physical activity, it is imperative to evaluate individual characteristics and seek advice from an expert health professional on the level and nature of the physical activity that a person can engage in. For the pediatric population, making physical activity and exercise part of the curriculum is essential in encouraging the young ones to develop healthy habits. Evidence supports the need to integrate physical activity and exercise in everyday learning programs (Kohl & Cook, 2021). Apart from the health and physical benefits, studies reveal that physical activity has numerous other benefits to children, including proper development, cognitive performance, better concentration, positive behavior, and overall good academic performance (CDC, 2021). Combining exercise with patient education is a good strategy for enhancing adherence to physical activity regimes.
CDC. (2021, May 5). Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States. Retrieved from CDC: https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html#:~:text=Prevalence%20of%20Childhood%20Obesity%20in%20the%20United%20States&text=The%20prevalence%20of%20obesity%20was,to%2019%2Dyear%2Dolds.
Kohl, H., & Cook, H. (2021). Educating the Student Body: Taking Physical Activity and Physical Education to School. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).
Replies to Ordelis Montejo Magana
Type 2 diabetes and heart disease are two high-risk health conditions that could be prevented and managed with daily physical activity. In the U. S., heart disease is indeed the major source of mortality for adults and persons of most races and ethnicities. One out of every four deaths are due to heart disease. In the US, one person dies from heart disease every 36 seconds. Heart disease claims the lives of around 659,000 people in the United States annually. The most prevalent kind of heart disease is coronary artery disease. About 18.2 million Americans suffer from coronary heart disease (CDC, 2020). Over 37 million Americans have diabetes, with type 2 diabetes accounting for 90-95 percent of cases. Type 2 diabetes is most common in those over 45, but it is progressively affecting a growing number of teenagers, adolescents, as well as young adults. The estimated pervasiveness of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents aged 10 to 19 years grew from 0.34 to 0.67 per 1000 (Lawrence et al., 2021). For type 2 diabetes, the estimated prevalence amongst children and adolescents has grown dramatically.
Assessing individual needs, identification of resources, education, and evaluating programs are the measures I could undertake as a nurse to help clients integrate exercise and physical activity into their life. The kinds of activities I would recommend are muscle strengthening and aerobic activity. In addition to aerobic exercise, new scientific research emphasizes the necessity of muscular strengthening (Crump et al., 2019). The amount of exercise I would recommend are moderate intensity for aerobic activity and working all body’s major muscles groups on muscle strengthening activity. Involving the client in the decision-making process is the strategy I would utilize to achieve cooperation from the client.
CDC. (2020, September 9). Heart disease facts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved February 13, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm
Crump, C., Sundquist, K., Sundquist, J., &Winkleby, M. A. (2019). Exercise is medicine: Primary care counseling on aerobic fitness and muscle strengthening. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 32(1), 103-107.
Lawrence, J. M., Divers, J., Isom, S., Saydah, S., Imperatore, G., Pihoker, C., … & SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group. (2021). Trends in prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in the US, 2001-2017. JAMA, 326(8), 717-727.
This is an outstanding response on the essence of physical activity and exercise in reduction of risk of type 2 diabetes and heart diseases. Physical activity and exercise characterize dominant nonpharmacological intervention that enhances glucose metabolism and other cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes patients. As such, Jacob & Krentz (2020) recommends that physical activity should be integrated in the primary therapeutic recommendations for type 2 diabetes and heart diseases. Weight loss associated with increased physical activity facilitates muscle cells to utilize glucose and insulin more effectively, leading to reduced diabetes risk. Lack of exercise can make muscle cells to drop their insulin sensitivity, which is critical in managing blood sugar levels in blood (Wake, 2020). Apart from well acknowledged benefits of glycaemic control, exercise is also essential in cardiovascular health. Individuals at the pre-diabetic stage or with metabolic syndrome can delay or prevent the progression of diabetes through adoption of regular physical activity (Mirahmadizadeh et al., 2020). It is imperative to initiate exercise program after proper medical screening and formulation of exercise prescription tailored to individual needs.
Jacob, S., & Krentz, A. J. (2020). Exercise prescription in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease: could less be more?. Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism, 9(1), 1. doi: 10.1097/XCE.0000000000000196
Mirahmadizadeh, A., Khorshidsavar, H., Seif, M., & Sharifi, M. H. (2020). Adherence to medication, diet and physical activity and the associated factors amongst patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Therapy, 11(2), 479-494. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13300-019-00750-8
Wake, A. D. (2020). Antidiabetic effects of physical activity: how it helps to control type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity: targets and therapy, 13, 2909. doi: 10.2147/DMSO.S262289
Exercise and physical activity are integral to the human body’s proper functioning and reducing the risk of various diseases. Regular exercises have enormous benefits in the prevention and management of diabetes and high blood pressure. Diabetes is among the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world and the seventh leading cause of death. In 2014, about 422 million people were reported by the World Health Organization as diabetic, and those aged between 18 years and above rose from 4.7% to 8.5% between 1980 and 2014 (Nystoriak&Bhatnagar, 2018). Americans are among the most affected by high blood pressure 1 in every three middle-aged adults having the condition. Middle-aged women are the most affected, with a prevalence of 49% and 44% in men. About 20% of people with the condition are not aware of it.
As a nurse, I would give the following recommendations to assist clients with these health conditions. They should exercise for at least three hours every week. The exercises include walking, jogging, yoga, going to the gym, meditation, among others. They should also take a nutritious diet free of salts and fats. Clients should check their weight and learn about the importance of regular exercise (Ruegsegger& Booth, 2018). Gaining the cooperation of clients involves starting friendly and demonstrating what you tell them.
Nystoriak, M. A., &Bhatnagar, A. (2018). Cardiovascular effects and benefits of exercise. Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 5, 135.
Ruegsegger, G. N., & Booth, F. W. (2018). Health benefits of exercise. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 8(7), a029694.
Your response on the essence of physical activity and exercise in reduction of risk of diabetes is insightful and well done. Indeed, regular exercise enhances blood glucose control in diabetic patients, lowers cardiovascular risk factors, facilitates weight loss, and improves wellness. Moreover, regular exercise can potentially avert or delay the development of type 2 diabetes and also ensure remarkable health benefits for people with type 1diabetes such as enhanced cardiovascular fitness, insulin sensitivity, and muscle strength (Colberg et al., 2016). According to CDC (2022) it is important for an individual to set at least 150 minutes weekly for moderate-intensity physical activity. One strategy to realize this goal is to set between 20 and 25 minutes of physical activity daily. Moreover, it is important to set two or more days in a week for physical activity that involves all main muscle groups (CDC, 2022). Issues related to management of blood glucose differ with activity type, diabetes type, and diabetes risk factors. Therefore, it is important to check with clinician before initiating physical activity. Moreover, physical activity and exercise proposals should be tailored to realize particular needs of every person (Colberg et al., 2016).
CDC. (2022). Get Active!. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/managing/active.html
Colberg, S. R., Sigal, R. J., Yardley, J. E., Riddell, M. C., Dunstan, D. W., Dempsey, P. C., … & Tate, D. F. (2016). Physical activity/exercise and diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes care, 39(11), 2065-2079. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-1728
Replies to Marise Guillaume Charles
According to Alford (2018), people who take regular exercises can reduce risk of developing around two dozen of physical and mental conditions. Obesity and hypertension are two at risk health issues that regular physical exercise and activity can help prevent. Prevalence of obesity in United States, France, Germany, Italy Spain and Brazil: the number of Obese people will increase from 167 million in 2012 to 213 million in 2022. According to Whelton et al (2017), 2021 statistics show that nearly half of the numbers in the United States that is 116 million had hypertension. More than 500 deaths had hypertension. The nurse offers health education and counseling to the client on the need for life style changes.
When necessary, there is there is also need for the nurse to refer the client. Regular moderate to intense physical activity is associated with decreased risk of obesity and heart disease. These exercises generally burn the fat thus promote adequate and effective circulation to all the vital parts parts of the body. Not only that, lung function is improved and so is oxygenation and delivery of nutrients thereby enhancing the general well being of a client. Evidence of beneficial effects of physical activity in the primary prevention of obesity and hypertension is growing. There is an association between higher levels of activity and lower obesity and hypertension rates. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2022), it recommends a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate cardiovascular activity such walking each week or 75 minutes of higher intensity activity such as biking or running weekly. This should be in combination with at least two days of weight training targeting all the major muscle groups such as back, hip, leg, arms, shoulders and abdomen.
Alford, L. (2018). What Men Should Know About The Impact of Physical Activity on Their Health. International Journal of Clinical Practice: 64(13).
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. (2022).
About Multiple Cause of Death
Whelton, P.K., Carey, R.M., Aronow, W.S., Casey, D.E., Collis, K.J, and Dennison.C. (2017).
Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults. Journal of Hypertension: 71(19):13-115.