NRS 434 Topic 3 DQ 1 

Adolescent pregnancy is viewed as a high-risk situation because it poses serious health risks for the mother and the baby. Describe various risk factors or precursors to adolescent pregnancy. Research community and state resources devoted in adolescent pregnancy and describe at least two of these resources. Research the teen pregnancy rates for the last 10 years for your state and community. Has this rate increased or decreased? Discuss possible reasons for an increase or decrease. 


Re: Topic 3 DQ 1

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), roughly 22 per thousand births are born to teenage mothers (CDC, 2017). Risk factors to adolescent pregnancy include socioeconomic issues of poverty, low levels of literacy, low levels of education, single parent households, unemployment, incarceration, and living in crowded and poor neighborhoods (Falkner et al., 2018). Maryland State’s teenage birth rate has declined by 53% since 2001, and in 2017, the teenage birth rate in Maryland was 31.8 out of 1,000 births (Dumas et al., 2020). In Montgomery County in the state of Maryland, the teenage birth rate declined between 2008 and 2014 to 12.3 out of every 1,000 births with racial disparities showing Hispanic teens aged 15-19 having significantly higher birth rates at 20.9 per thousand births compared to 6.3 for White and 7.4 for Black teens in the same age category (Montgomery County Government: Department of Health and Human Services, 2016). 

The possible reasons for the decline in teenage pregnancy rates include increased access to school health services and school nurses, increased access to community health case management services, expansion of sex education in middle school and high school (which includes topics like pregnancy prevention strategies), and a proliferation of programs for prevention of adolescent pregnancy such as the Interagency Coalition on Adolescent Pregnancy (ICAP) (Feldman & Margolis, 2016; Jiang et al., 2017; Shifflet-Chila et al., 2016). The School health services and community health services are part of the interagency coalition that supports adolescent pregnancy prevention and parenting support programs through case management, education, and birth control support. 

Another resource dedicated to adolescent pregnancy prevention and support is the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), through its website that provides data, tools, resources, and educational materials on health promotion for pregnant teenagers (Shifflet-Chila et al., 2016). Similarly, the federally funded Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs (TPP), which comprise sex education and sexually transmitted infections (STI) education also focus on adolescent pregnancy prevention and can be accessed through the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website (Feldman & Margolis, 2016). The growth of these programs helps to slow down the rate of teenage pregnancy and births. 


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). About teen pregnancy. Retrieved from 

Dumas, S. A., Chu, S., &Horswell, R. (2020). Analysis of Pregnancy and Birth Rates Among Black and White Medicaid-Enrolled Teens. The Journal of adolescent health: Official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 67(3), 409–415. 

Feldman Farb, A., & Margolis, A. L. (2016). The Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program (2010-2015): Synthesis of Impact Findings. American journal of public health, 106(S1), S9–S15. 

Jiang, Y., Granja, M. R., &Koball, H. (2017). Basic facts about low-income children: Children 12 through 17 years. Retrieved from 

Montgomery County Government: Department of Health and Human Services. (2016). Teen Pregnancy trends. 

Shifflet-Chila, E. D., Harold, R. D., Fitton, V. A., &Ahmedani, B. K. (2016). Adolescent and family development: Autonomy and identity in the digital age. Children and Youth Services Review, 70, 364-368. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.10.005 



This is excellent work, Makafui. The focus on adolescent pregnancies is well done. It is detailed and captures points about the topic. I agree with you that there is a steady decline in teenage pregnancy. According to CDC (2021), the teen birth rate in the US has been reducing since the year 1991. For instance, the teen birth rate declined from 17.4% per 1,000 teenage girls in 2018 to 16.4% per 1,000 teenage girls in 2019. Moreover, birth rates reduced by 7% for girls aged 15-17 years and 4% for females between 18 and 19 years. Although there are no precise reasons for the fall in teen pregnancy, evidence points that the declines can be attributed to sexual abstinence and increased utilization of birth control compared to the previous years (CDC, 2021). The decline in teen pregnancy is impressive, and there is a need to implement various initiatives to ensure the trend is maintained. Some of the initiatives include providing support programs and counseling to prevent teen pregnancy (Dowden et al., 2018). These groups can offer education on birth control and assist teens in understanding their sexual limits to avoid risky sexual behaviors (Leftwich & Alves, 2017). 



CDC. (2021). About Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved from 

Dowden, A. R., Gray, K., White, N., Ethridge, G., Spencer, N., & Boston, Q. (2018). A Phenomenological Analysis of the Impact of Teen Pregnancy on Education Attainment: Implications for School Counselors. Journal of School Counseling, 16(8), n8. 

Leftwich, H. K., & Alves, M. V. O. (2017). Adolescent pregnancy. Pediatric Clinics, 64(2), 381-388. 



Adolescent pregnancy is linked to a number of negative consequences. Risk factors for teen pregnancy include
living in poverty, poor maternal academic education, and being a baby of a teen mother. Other factors
contributing to teen pregnancy are early sexual activity, abusive home situation, alcohol and drug
dependency, single-parent homes, and low self-esteem (Papri, Khanam, Ara, & Panna, 2016). Teen pregnancy is a
higher risk pregnancy, pregnancy tees are usually possible to develop gestational hypertension and anemia, and
have pre-term labor and delivery. Teens are also more likely not to know they have a sexually transmitted disease,
some that can cause harm to the baby (Araujo Silva et al., 2013). They are less likely to obtain prenatal care and
keep their appointments.
Comprehensive Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (CAPP) is a New York state initiative with the purpose of decreasing
adolescent pregnancies. This is done through the establishment of a comprehensive approach that reduces initial
pregnancies and STDs among adolescents (" Comprehensive adolescent pregnancy prevention / CAPP," 2020). Family
Planning Benefit Program is also available for those who are not able to afford contraceptive services. It increases
accessibility to family planning services among individuals with an aim of reducing rates of unintentional
pregnancies especially among adolescents (Travers, O' Uhuru, Mueller, & Bedell, 2019). Access to birth control and
education on its importance can help in preventing teen pregnancy.
Travers et al (2019), notes that teenage birth rates in New York State had declined by 73% between 1991 and 2017.
This shift is due to efforts from health initiatives involving the government, schools, community groups, parents, and adolescents. Young people have been provided with the necessary resources that help them make informed
decisions about their sexual and reproductive health. Reality television shows, social media, and public health
campaigns have also incorporated pregnancy prevention information targeting adolescents. 

Araujo Silva, A. C., Santos Andrade, M., da Silva, R. S., Evangelista, T. J., Santos Bittencourt, I., & do Nascimento
Paixão, G. P. (2013). Risk Factors Contributing to the Occurrence of Adolescent Pregnancy: Integrative Review of
the Literature. RevistaCuidarte, 4(1), 531–539.
Comprehensive adolescent pregnancy prevention / CAPP. (2020, February 3). Retrieved from https://www.spcc-
Papri, F. S., Khanam, Z., Ara, S., & Panna, M. B. (2016). Adolescent Pregnancy: Risk Factors, Outcome and
Prevention. ChattagramMaa-O-Shishu Hospital Medical College Journal ,15(1), 53-56.
Travers, M., O'Uhuru, D., Mueller, T., & Bedell, J. (2019). Implementing Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive
Health Clinical Best Practice in the Bronx, New York. Journal of Adolescent Health ,64(3), 376-381. 

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This is an outstanding work, Gardala. You have provided thoughtful and insightful details about the topic. I agree with you. Teen pregnancy remains a key contributor to child and maternal mortality (Leftwich & Alves, 2017). Complications about teen pregnancy and childbirth are the primary reasons for death in girls aged between 15-19 years internationally. Pregnant girls and adolescents also experience various health risks and complications because of their immature bodies. Moreover, children born to adolescent mothers are equally at a higher risk. Unmarried pregnant teenagers also tend to face rejection or stigma by families, society, and peers. Teenage pregnancy also characterizes economic and social effects on teenage girls, families, and communities (Plan International, 2021). Therefore, there is a need to help adolescent girls by increasing awareness of their reproductive and sexual health rights, safeguarding them from abuse, and ensuring access to health services and education (Nkhoma et al., 2020). Adolescent pregnancy tends to increase when girls are barred from making decisions regarding their reproductive health and sexual choices. As such, it is important to help girls decide about their bodies and access health care services (Plan International, 2021). 


Leftwich, H. K., & Alves, M. V. O. (2017). Adolescent pregnancy. Pediatric Clinics, 64(2), 381-388. 

Nkhoma, D. E., Lin, C. P., Katengeza, H. L., Soko, C. J., Estinfort, W., Wang, Y. C., … & Iqbal, U. (2020). Girls’ empowerment and adolescent pregnancy: A systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(5), 1664. 10.3390/ijerph17051664 

Plan International. (2021). Teenage pregnancy. Retrieved from 

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