NRS 433 Topic 3 DQ 1 

Topic 3 DQ 1 

Apr 18-20, 2022 

Provide examples of experimental and nonexperimental research design. Contrast the levels of control applied to each. 

Wanda Felder 

Posted Date 

Apr 24, 2022, 6:13 PM 

I have another example regarding patient fatigue. How variable is an oncology patient’s fatigue? I do not think their fatigue is a discrete measurement. For many of my patients, they associate their level of fatigue with when they last received chemotherapy or where they are in their chemotherapy cycle. Additionally, a patient’s fatigue can be related to anemia if the chemotherapy has caused their hemoglobin and hematocrit to drop. 

Of course, there are some patients who do not experience fatigue, as you mentioned. Other patients have minimal declines in their energy level, and others are utterly exhausted. For these patients, we assess them to ascertain if blood products or IV fluids are needed. Following these interventions and when patients return for evaluation, their fatigue level is assessed again. I do feel that their responses reveal an improvement in their fatigue at their follow-up appointment. No matter their responses, this would be difficult for researchers. 

An example of nonexperimental research involves observing the behavior of patients’ reactions to pet therapy. I am interested in knowing how people who are not “pet people” react to pet therapy. In the study performed by Thodberg et al. (2015), nursing home residents who were afraid of dogs or had an allergy to dogs were excluded. They explicitly mentioned that exclusion criteria were fear or an allergy, but did not discuss if residents had a dislike of dogs.  

Thodberg et al. (2015) discuss the experimental study they completed regarding pet therapy and its impact on the nursing home residents’ sleep, psychiatric state, and weight. The researcher would need participants to sign consents to participate in this study. Interestingly, the participants had a cognitive decline during the experimental period (Thodberg et al., 2015). So, either non-experimental or experimental there are factors that can cause bias in this research study. Can you think of a type of bias? 

 

Thodberg, K., Sørensen, L. U., Christensen, J. W., Poulsen, P. H., Houbak, B., Damgaard, V., Keseler, I., Edwards, D., & Videbech, P. B. (2015). Therapeutic effects of dog visits in nursing homes for the elderly. Psychogeriatrics, 16(5), 289–297. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12159 

Natalee Burrell 

Posted Date 

Apr 20, 2022, 10:11 PM 

Replies to Wanda Felder 

Nursing research is extensive, and researchers use different designs to collect data and make inferences about various phenomena. Some researchers prefer the experimental design, while others rely on the non-experimental design. The main difference between these designs is how they deal with variables. Experimental design allows manipulation of variables, but the non-experimental design does not (Harding et al., 2021). Practical examples can help elucidate the differences between experimental and non-experimental research designs. 

A suitable example of experimental research design is testing a new depression medication through a randomized controlled trial. In this experiment, the experimental group receives the medication while the control group receives a placebo. Participants can only belong to one of the groups. Non-experimental research may be carried out on the treatment to determine its characteristics, such as the quantity and chemical components. Another appropriate example is an experiment on the effectiveness of physical exercise on diabetic adults. One group goes through intensive exercise without a change in diet while the other participates in dietary modifications. Non-experimental research can be assessing the features of dietary modifications necessary to reducing obesity. 

Regarding the levels of control, experimental research design exerts control on extraneous variables. Laksana et al. (2020) described extraneous variables as the variables not being investigated but can affect the outcomes of the research study. As a result, experimental research tampers with the natural setting. On the other hand, experimental research environments are natural and do not control extraneous variables. Harding et al. (2021) further posited that the most distinct difference between experimental and non-experimental research design is the researcher’s ability to control independent variables. Experimental research is manipulative, while non-experimental research does not interfere with the natural setting. The control is justified since researchers should control variables that can lead to inaccurate deductions. 

References 

Harding, D. J., Sanbonmatsu, L., Duncan, G. J., Gennetian, L. A., Katz, L. F., Kessler, R. C., … & Ludwig, J. (2021). Evaluating contradictory experimental and nonexperimental estimates of neighborhood effects on economic outcomes for adults. Housing Policy Debate, 1-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2021.1881985 

 

Laksana, E., Aczon, M., Ho, L., Carlin, C., Ledbetter, D., & Wetzel, R. (2020). The impact of extraneous features on the performance of recurrent neural network models in clinical tasks. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 102, 103351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2019.103351 

 

 

 

 

Marise Guillaume Charles 

replied toNatalee Burrell 

Apr 22, 2022, 10:24 PM 

Replies to Natalee Burrell 

Hello Natalee. Thanks for the insightful discussion. From your discussion, I have learned that experimental design allows manipulation of variables, but the non-experimental design does not. There are two major types of research designs: experimental and nonexperimental. Experimental designs are used when the researcher wants to control and manipulate the variables in a study, in order to test a specific hypothesis (Harding et al., 2021). Nonexperimental designs, on the other hand, are used when the researcher does not want to manipulate the variables but rather wants to simply observe and describe what is happening. The level of control applied to each type of design varies (Leventhal & Dupéré, 2019). Experimental designs tend to have more control, since the researcher is able to specifically target and manipulate certain variables. Nonexperimental designs generally have less control, since the researcher is not actively manipulating any variables but is instead only observing what is happening naturally (Edmonds & Kennedy, 2017). Experimental research is manipulative, while non-experimental research does not interfere with the natural setting.  

 

References 

Edmonds, W., & Kennedy, T. (2017). Quantitative methods for nonexperimental research. An Applied Guide to Research Designs: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods. Seconded Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc, 117-119. https://methods.sagepub.com/book/an-applied-guide-to-research-designs-2e/i949.xml 

Harding, D. J., Sanbonmatsu, L., Duncan, G. J., Gennetian, L. A., Katz, L. F., Kessler, R. C., … & Ludwig, J. (2021). Evaluating contradictory experimental and nonexperimental estimates of neighborhood effects on economic outcomes for adults. Housing Policy Debate, 1-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2021.1881985 

Leventhal, T., & Dupéré, V. (2019). Neighborhood effects on children’s development in experimental and nonexperimental research. Annual review of developmental psychology, 1, 149-176. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121318-085221 

 

  Jasmine Arreola 

replied toNatalee Burrell 

Apr 23, 2022, 7:09 PM 

Replies to Natalee Burrell 

Natalee,  

Like your example of an RCT in experimental research I was interested to read this randomized controlled trial by Jain et al. (2019) on the effects of yoga in patients with heart failure. The inclusion criteria for the study was stable systolic HF, ages 18-65, left ventricular ejection fraction 30-40%, and unchanged pharmacologic therapy in the last 3 months (Jain et al., 2019). While they excluded people with instances of acute coronary syndrome in the last 6 months, comorbidities of COPD, liver failure, renal failure, and malignancy, and those unable to do yoga (Jain et al., 2019). They randomized the 60 participants into two groups, the control group received their standard medication therapy and the other group that received that plus yoga (Jain et al., 2019). The study lasted 12 weeks and the results found several beneficial effects in the group doing yoga: improvement in ejection fraction, quality of life, and reduction in NTproBNP and CRP levels (Jain et al., 2019). The authors cite a limitation that participating in yoga could not be blind, so they cannot rule out a placebo effect in the quality of life measurement (Jain et al., 2019). Nonetheless, the lab results cannot be disputed so the findings do have clinical significance and this leads to generalizability. I chose this article because to me it provided a clear picture of the topic we are discussing this week. While reading the study I was able to dissect attributes in ways I would not previously have been able to do.   

 

 

 

Jain, A., Manchanda, S., Madan, K., Bhola, S., & Sawhney, J. (2019). Effect of yoga in Heart Failure: randomized trial. Indian Heart Journal, 71, S37. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.4103/ijoy.ijoy_183_21 

Natalya Kramarczyk 

Posted Date 

Apr 20, 2022, 8:08 PM 

Replies to Wanda Felder 

Experimental research studies is highly controlled research in which researcher manipulates one or more variables to determine effect on other variables (McNiff & Petrick, 2018). Experimental research design is often considered a gold-standard in research designs and more protected from bias and subjectivity compare to other research methods. It is widely used method in science, psychology, social studies and education. It is considered to have the most reliable outcomes and the most definite answers and less chance of bias IMcNiff & Pertick, 2018). Experimental research design is based on comparison of two or more groups where the participants are randomly selected and neither the participants nor the researcher would know if they were receiving the treatment or intervention or the placebo, which makes experimental research is a highly controlled and manipulated environment. In this quantitative research design, one or more independent variables are manipulated and applied to one or more dependent variables and the effect on the dependable variables is observed, measured and recorded, therefore it allows the researcher to draw a reasonable conclusion regarding cause -effect relationships between two variables types. This type of research is essential for nursing science which heavily relies on evidence best practice. Experimental studies are considered capable of generating substantial evidence (Gonella, Di Giulio, Palese, Dimonte, & Campagna,2019). For example, experimental study with nursing staff related to the knowledge about pressure ulcers was conducted among 71 nursing staff divided into intervention group and control group. Data was collected through validated questionnaire and the scores of the groups were analyzed before and after intervention concluded that educational interventions on staging, evaluation and prevention of pressure ulcers contributed significantly to the increase of correct responses score in the knowledge test of the intervention group and improved their knowledge on the subject (Baron, Reuter, Burgos, Cavali, Brandenburg & Krug, 2016). 

On the other hand, in non-experimental research design the environment of the research cannot be controlled or manipulated by a researcher at will because it takes place in a real life settings, where extraneous variables cannot be eliminated. Therefore the relationships between cause and effects cannot be clearly established. Another term for this type of research is observational because the researcher observes natural occurrences without intervention (Glasofer & Townsend, 2019). Findings from non-experimental research is the first step in determining whether an experimental design is called for. For example, a researcher may want to study exercise habits among teenagers with type 2 diabetes.  

It can not be said that one method is better than the other. Each one is equally valid depending on what is going to be studied and / or on the perspective that the researcher wants to give to his/her work. Both research designs are valuable for advancing nursing practice and nursing profession as a whole.  

References 

Baron, M. V., Reuter, C. P., Burgos, M. S., Cavalli, V., Brandenburg, C., & Krug, S. B. (2016). Experimental study with nursing staff related to the knowledge about pressure ulcers. Revista latino-americana de enfermagem, 24, e2831. https://doi.org/10.1590/1518-8345.1134.2831 

 

Glasofer, Amy DNP, RN, NE-BC; Townsend, Ann B. DrNP, RN, ANP-C, CNS-C Determining the level of evidence, Nursing Critical Care: November 2019 – Volume 14 – Issue 6 – p 22-25 

doi: 10.1097/01.CCN.0000580120.03118.1d  

 

Gonella, S., Di Giulio, P., Palese, A., Dimonte, V., & Campagna, S. (2019). Randomized Controlled Trials and Quasi-Experimental Studies Published in Nursing Journals: Findings From a Scoping Review With Implications for Further Research. Worldviews on evidence-based nursing, 16(4), 299–309. https://doi.org/10.1111/wvn.12370 

 

McNiff, P., & Petrick, M. (2018). Quantitative Research: Ethics, Theory, and Research. Nursing research: Understanding methods for best practice. Grand Canyon University. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs433v/nursing-research-understanding-methods-for-best-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/3 

 

Marise Guillaume Charles 

replied toNatalya Kramarczyk 

Apr 22, 2022, 10:24 PM 

Replies to Natalya Kramarczyk 

Hello Natalya. Thanks for the insightful discussion. From your discussion, I have learned that experimental research design is based on comparison of two or more groups where the participants are randomly selected and neither the participants nor the researcher would know if they were receiving the treatment or intervention or the placebo, which makes experimental research is a highly controlled and manipulated environment (Swart et al., 2019). Experimental research designs are those in which the researcher manipulates a variable of interest and measures the effect on another variable (Gonella et al., 2019). This type of design is often used in studies that aim to establish cause-and-effect relationships. In contrast, nonexperimental research designs are those in which the researcher does not manipulate any variables and instead just observes what happens. These types of studies are often used to explore relationships between variables or to describe some phenomenon (Leventhal & Dupéré, 2019). One key difference between experimental and nonexperimental designs is the level of control that is applied to each. In an experimental design, the researcher has a great deal of control over the variables under study. He or she can manipulate one variable while holding all other variables constant.  

References 

Gonella, S., Di Giulio, P., Palese, A., Dimonte, V., & Campagna, S. (2019). Randomized Controlled Trials and Quasi-Experimental Studies Published in Nursing Journals: Findings From a Scoping Review With Implications for Further Research. Worldviews on evidence-based nursing, 16(4), 299–309. https://doi.org/10.1111/wvn.12370 

Leventhal, T., & Dupéré, V. (2019). Neighborhood effects on children’s development in experimental and nonexperimental research. Annual review of developmental psychology, 1, 149-176. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121318-085221 

Swart, L. A., Kramer, S., Ratele, K., & Seedat, M. (2019). Non-experimental research designs: Investigating the spatial distribution and social ecology of male homicide. Research Methods in the Social Sciences, 19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193841X18773807 

  Mary Bonillos 

replied toNatalya Kramarczyk 

Apr 24, 2022, 12:20 AM 

Replies to Natalya Kramarczyk 

Nonexperimental research designs are usually used to examine social phenomena in natural settings. There is no manipulation from the researcher, as there are no random assignments to different groups. On the other hand, experimental research is a method that the researcher highly controls. In randomized controlled trials (RTC), researchers are trying to measure the effectiveness of a new intervention or treatment. Experimental studies are highly controlled, as the researcher carefully selects the sampling group of the population, the intervention being studied, and the outcomes of interest (Hariton & Locascio, 2018). A defining feature of an RCT is that the researcher controls the assignment of the treatment or exposure. If done correctly, random assignment balances unmeasured confounders in expectation between the intervention and control groups (de Vocht et al., 2021). Another research option is a blend of experimental and nonexperimental. Quasi-experimental and natural experimental studies combine features of experiments, as they are research-led but non-randomized experiments (de Vocht et al., 2021). “Natural or quasi-experiments are appealing for public health research because they enable the evaluation of events or interventions that are difficult or impossible to manipulate experimentally, such as many policy and health system reforms” (de Vocht et al., 2021). 

References 

de Vocht, F., Katikireddi, S., McQuire, C., Tilling, K., Hickman, M., & Craig, P. (2021). Conceptualising natural and quasi experiments in public health. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-021-01224-x 

Hariton, E., & Locascio, J. J. (2018). Randomised controlled trials – the gold standard for effectiveness research: Study design: Randomised controlled trials. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 125(13), 1716. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.15199 

 

 

Tamara Houston 

Posted Date 

Apr 20, 2022, 6:25 PM 

Replies to Wanda Felder 

There are two broad methods in qualitative research. They are experimental and nonexperimental research design. The major difference between experimental and nonexperimental research design is this; In nonexperimental research, there is no manipulation of an independent variable, no requirement for a control group and no random group assignments as in experimental and quasi-experimental designs (Glasofer et al, 2020). Nonexperimental research is strictly observational as its purpose is to collect data. The variables are also measured as they occur organically without manipulation or use of external variables. According to Glasofer et al (2020), nonexperimental research design is driven by the research question’s intent to describe, predict, or explain the variable. Our class text tells us that experimental research design is the most highly controlled quantitative design where the most manipulation occurs to have the most reliable outcomes and the most definitive answers on what factors truly influence others and how (Mcniff & Petrick, 2018). This type of research design is utilized in clinical studies as well as evidence-based research. It often answers the question the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable. For example, in a study done by Mulyadi et al (2018), the main objective was to determine the effects of simulation technology-based learning for nursing students.  From this study it was concluded that simulation technology is effective in meeting the needs of undergraduate students to prepare them for practice in a clinical setting.  

Glasofer, A., & Townsend, A. B. (2020). Determining the level of evidence: Nonexperimental research designs. Nursing2020 Critical Care, 15(1), 24-27.doi: 10.1097/01.CCN.0000612856.94212.9b    

 

Mcniff, P. & Petrick, M. (2018). Quantitative research: ethics, theory, and research. Nursing research:understanding methods for best practice. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs433v/nursing-research-understanding-methods-for-best-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/3  

 

Mulyadi, M., Tonapa, S. I., Rompas, S. S. J., Wang, R. H., & Lee, B. O. (2021). Effects of simulation technology-based learning on nursing students’ learning outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies. Nurse Education Today, 107, 105127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2021.105127 

 

Marise Guillaume Charles 

replied toTamara Houston 

Apr 23, 2022, 5:27 AM 

Replies to Tamara Houston 

Hello Tamara. Thanks for the insightful discussion. From your discussion, I have learned that experimental research design is the most highly controlled quantitative design where the most manipulation occurs to have the most reliable outcomes and the most definitive answers on what factors truly influence others and how (Mcniff & Petrick, 2018). There are several key differences between experimental and nonexperimental research designs. The most important difference is that experimental designs allow for causality to be established, while nonexperimental designs cannot (Leventhal & Dupéré, 2019). This means that, with an experimental design, you can say with some confidence that a certain treatment or intervention caused a certain outcome; with a nonexperimental design, you can only say that there is a correlation between the two (Glasofer & Townsend, 2020). Other important differences include the fact that experimental designs are usually conducted in Controlled Environments (such as laboratories), while nonexperimental designs are usually conducted in Naturalistic Settings (such as the real world). Experimental designs also tend to be more structured than nonexperimental designs, and to involve fewer participants. 

 

References 

Glasofer, A., & Townsend, A. B. (2020). Determining the level of evidence: Nonexperimental research designs. Nursing2020 Critical Care, 15(1), 24-27.doi: 10.1097/01.CCN.0000612856.94212.9b    

Leventhal, T., & Dupéré, V. (2019). Neighborhood effects on children’s development in experimental and nonexperimental research. Annual review of developmental psychology, 1, 149-176. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121318-085221 

Mcniff, P. & Petrick, M. (2018). Quantitative research: ethics, theory, and research. Nursing research:understanding methods for best practice. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs433v/nursing-research-understanding-methods-for-best-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/3 

Wanda Felder 

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