Topic 2 DQ 2
Apr 11-15, 2022
The three types of qualitative research are phenomenological, grounded theory, and ethnographic research. Compare the differences and similarities between two of the three types of qualitative studies and give an example of each.
Apr 19, 2022, 8:02 AM
Green and Johnson explain that phenomenological research involves what individuals have experienced throughout their lives. It involves an approach of in depth interviews and conversations with a subject, trying to understand a phenomena that has happened in their life (Green & Johnson, 2018). An example of a phenomenological research is found in a study by Eroğlu & Şenol. Teachers that taught remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic were interviewed and data was collected about student participation, motivation, curriculums, and much more. This study involved 12 teachers that got the interview and it was an effective method to gather descriptions and experiences from each teacher (Eroğlu & Şenol, 2021).
Green and Johnson then go on to describe the grounded theory as a collection of information from interviews or from observing, then analyzing this information. It is portrayed as a way to understand actions by people in a phenomena (Green & Johnson, 2018). An example of this is found in an article by Foji et al. describing individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1. The article discusses how they live and experience life, and was conducted over the space of 15 months. Individuals were able to express the hardships they have faced and how their life condition affects relief or happiness (Foji et al., 2022). One of the most beneficial parts of using the Grounded theory is that it can examine something uncommon and develop a theory grounded in the data collected (Chun et al., 2019).
Green & Johnson describe ethnography as trying to understand a person’s cultures through observation. Sometimes this involves a researcher deeply involving themselves in the culture to understand it (Green & Johnson, 2018). An example of an ethnographic research is from a study by Montero-Sieburth about migration populations. The study had cases in the United States, as well as The Netherlands and involved a lot of participation from the researchers while working with vulnerable populations as they gathered qualitative data. She described this study method as a potential for ethical dilemmas because the population is extremely vulnerable, as well as researchers needing to avoid political or cultural practices that might be unethical (Montero-Sieburth, 2020).
Chun Tie, Y., Birks, M., & Francis, K. (2019). Grounded Theory Research: A design framework for novice researchers. SAGE Open Medicine, 7. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050312118822927
Eroğlu, M., & Şenol, C. (2021). Emergency remote education experiences of teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A phenomenological research. Shanlax International Journal of Education, 9(3), 161–172. https://doi.org/10.34293/education.v9i3.3918
Foji, S., Mohammadi, E., Sanagoo, A., & Jouybari, L. (2022). How do people with neurofibromatosis type 1 (the forgotten victims) live? A grounded theory study. Health Expectations, 25(2), 659–666. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.13413
Montero-Sieburth, M. (2020). Ethical dilemmas and challenges in Ethnographic Migration Research. Qualitative Research Journal, 20(3), 281–291. https://doi.org/10.1108/qrj-12-2019-0100
Apr 16, 2022, 9:41 PM
Replies to Claire Haws
As nurses, we care for the whole person or patient, which is the concept of phenomenology. In nursing and phenomenology, we want to know the lived experience of the participant or patient. Personally, I feel that gaining a better understanding of patients or participants allows for better data acquisition. As a provider, I like to get to know the patient personally. For instance, I recently was completing a history on a 91-year-old lady who was on no prescription medications and only took a multivitamin. I asked her open questions in an effort for her to clarify how she is 91 years old with no significant medical history and no diagnosis requiring prescription medications. In addition, I asked her about her family history to see how their lived experiences kept them so healthy. Nonetheless, phenomenology and nursing are similar in their focus on obtaining information to improve healthcare experiences for patients (Zahavi, n.d.).
Can you recount your use of phenomenology in nursing? If you can’t, are you able to think of an opportunity where you can use it in the future?
I have included a video that details phenomenology.
Zahavi, D. (n.d). How can phenomenology help nurses care for their patients?| Aeon Essays. Aeon. https://aeon.co/essays/how-can-phenomenology-help-nurses-care-for-their-patients
replied toWanda Felder
Apr 17, 2022, 2:52 PM
Replies to Wanda Felder
I believe I have used phenomenology in nursing while working in the public health nursing setting. Upon initial visit of maternal child health clients, there are several assessment questions that are phenomenology in nature. For example, the questionnaire asked how they felt or to share their experience upon learning that they were pregnant. If the client was a young teen mother, the questionnaire asked how her parents took the news and what the clients experiences were with the parental support from the time they learned of the pregnancy until the date of the interview. All of these answers were unique as every mother had her own interpretation of her pregnancy experience. Because Public Health Nursing utilized many community resources such as the WIC program and Department of Human Services, referrals depended on how these phenomenology questions were answered. Some clients required mental health referrals, diaper bank referrals, food bank referrals, educational referrals, and other community resources. My point is that phenomenological research in my experience with Public Health nursing provided the client individualized care by referring the mother to programs according to her needs. Phenomenological research “allows researchers to study how experiences, traditions, and culture shape ordinary, everyday practices” (Oerther, 2021). This was the essence of research formulated into public health’s Maternal Child Health question and assessments. Thank you, Jana
Oerther Sarah. (2021). Analysis methods in hermeneutic phenomenological research: interpretive profiles. Frontiers of Nursing, 7(4), 293–298. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.2478/fon-2020-0038
replied toWanda Felder
Apr 17, 2022, 8:44 PM
Replies to Wanda Felder
Ethnography studies groups of people and culture. When we consider those from non english speaking countries their culture is different. It is true in some cultures that looking at somebody’s face when speaking is disrespectful but in the USA it’s okay and encouraged. Culture differences should be considered when taking care of patients from different cultures. Communication through verbal and nonverbal methods is determined through ethnographic research.
The culture of the nurses working in the medical unit is different from that of the nurse working in the ICU. Ethnographic research would be helpful in studying the behavior and culture of their unit to understand the pattern and behaviors of staff on those units. Nursing leadership can use grounded leadership research to collect data on safety of the units to prevent falls and infection to create policy to prevent these events. A combination of research techniques can be used together in the nursing profession. Nurses can study to express their experiences in the nursing profession.
Denzin N, Lincoln Y. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2005.
Apr 16, 2022, 9:41 PM
Features of Qualitative Research
Setting: Natural environment
–patient rooms, patient homes, nursing units
Samples: Small groups or individuals
–patients, staff nurses on a unit
Data: texts, notes, interviews through observations
–memos, codes, themes
–no statistical tests
What to look for: Interviews, open-ended questions, lived-experiences, research gathered through observation and interviews, coding
–responses are natural and unstructured
—ethnography, biography, phenomenology, case study, grounded theory, case report, lived experience
Apr 16, 2022, 9:40 PM
Ethnography research studies groups of people and cultures. In nursing, ethnographic qualitative research can be utilized to better understand patient populations. Burnard and Naiyapatana (2004) reviewed how patient-nurse communication varies based on a patient’s cultural background. Think about patient-care for a non-English-speaking patient. Should their care be altered or lack the quality of care of patients who are English-speaking? In nursing, all patients should receive the same high-quality care no matter their background.
Burnard and Naiyapatana (2004) used ethnography to better understand Thai nursing, which allowed them to use coding to further investigate the culture of Thai nurses. Cultural differences are factors within in patient care. Burnard and Naiyapatana (2004) established that communication varies culturally. Depending on the immersion into the cultural nuances with ethnography, one might not garner the same results. Communication through volume and nonverbal methods were determined as differences through the ethnographic research (Burnard & Naiyapatana, 2004).
What are some cultural variations that you have which might cause misinterpretation in healthcare/nursing?
Burnard, P., & Naiyapatana,