Watch the “Diary of Medical Mission Trip” videos dealing with the catastrophic earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Reflect on this natural disaster by answering the following questions:
Propose one example of a nursing intervention related to the disaster from each of the following levels: primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. Provide innovative examples that have not been discussed by previous students.
Under which phase of the disaster do the three proposed interventions fall? Explain why you chose that phase.
With what people or agencies would you work in facilitating the proposed interventions and why?
Replies to Natasha Chavez
This video was humbling! It really explains how hard people in other countries have it even without a natural disaster! Primary prevention focuses on preventing disease or injury before it occurs (Falkner, 2018) One nursing intervention that would be good for this would be disaster planning courses. I believe people can be taught in these communities how to better prepare for such occurrences such as preparing your home, organizing supplies and having a disaster escape plan. Secondary prevention focuses on reducing the impact after disease or injury has already occurred (Falkner, 2018) This disaster falls under this category. The earthquake could not be avoided and had obviously not been planned for properly. These people needed treatment and healthcare and help in so many other ways. The nurses in this story need to focus on helping as many people as possible as quickly as possible. When I saw the video and saw how unorganized it was my OCD kicked in big time! It is such a time waster to have to go find everything separately. I know there was not really a way for anyone to take the time from the life saving procedures to do this but man, if only there would have been a way it would have helped immensely. Again proving why primary prevention is so important. The fact that the pharmacist was never there stressed me out so I can’t even imagine how those volunteers felt.
Tertiary prevention focuses lessening the impact of ongoing illness or injury by helping to manage long term and complex health issues (Kissling, 2021) The people in Haiti are going to need a lot of tertiary prevention as the earthquake ruined their infrastructure and displaced many families. It will and has taken years and many other volunteers including healthcare, and spiritual guidance. I would work with spiritual services and mental health programs to help this community to heal emotionally as well as physically. A lot of times people see all of the health related problems and forget that these people need support mentally as well. Especially considering many people lost loved ones.
Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Community & public health: The future of health care. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs427vn/community-and-public-health-the-future-of-health-care/v1.1/ ch 5
Kisling LA, M Das J. Prevention Strategies. [Updated 2021 May 9]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537222/
There are identifiable phases during crisis event that a nurse can be of great influence. The catastrophic earthquake in Haiti 2010 the very beginning of the video of Diary of Medical Mission Trio, you can hear someone naming inventory on antibiotics, inhalers, or food n preparation for the mission trip. Nurses are key in disaster preparedness, disaster response and postdisaster management. (Xue, et al., 2020).
To apply the three levels of interventions on earthquake disaster, primary nursing intervention involves strategies taken to reduce or minimize the impact of disaster, this could include finding shelter, or making an emergency kit for medications, food and clothing. The secondary intervention involves the prevention of injuries or disease, for example providing triage care or as the video showed with the infant born with possible exposure to tuberculosis, a treatment plan. Finally, the tertiary intervention focuses on managing the long-term effect of disaster event and assist on coping skills and maintaining quality of life. An example of this is assisting the community with rebuilding their homes, their livestock or livelihood, The Post- impact phase of a disaster event covers the three interventions because the healthcare system can participate bringing back the community’s health services, educate regarding prevention strategies for any future event and promote health (Grand Canyon University, 2018).
Nurses together with the health care team are the first responders to a disaster, providing treatment to the injured community. Stakeholders encourage disaster trainings for nurses to be knowledgeable and ready during such event (Achora & Kamanyire, 2016). Stakeholders private sector or government respond to disasters whether locally or on a global scale such as the World Health Organization, FEMA, or Non-governmental Organizations.
Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Community & public health: The future of health care. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs427vn/community-and-public-health-the-future-of-health-care/v1.1/
Achora, S., & Kamanyire, J. K. (2016). Disaster Preparedness: Need for inclusion in undergraduate nursing education. Sultan Qaboos University medical journal, 16(1), e15–e19. https://doi.org/10.18295/squmj.2016.16.01.004
Xue, C. L., Shu, Y. S., Hayter, M., & Lee, A. (2020). Experiences of nurses involved in natural disaster relief: A meta-synthesis of qualitative literature. Journal of clinical nursing, 29(23-24), 4514–4531. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15476
The primary prevention most suitable for an earthquake disaster is deploying more medical providers for rotation to prevent nurse burnout among the responders. Natural disasters such as earthquakes increase the number of patients, which increases the workload for nurses (Al Harthi et al., 2020). For example, in the Haiti earthquake of 2010, the patient-to-nurse ratio was very high (GCU Academics-Nursing, 2016). The secondary prevention for the disaster is the administration of antibiotics to wounded patients. Antibiotics kill and slow the growth of disease-causing microorganisms and prevent their spread to other parts of the body (GCU Academics-Nursing, 2016). For tertiary prevention, the most effective nursing intervention for this case is providing patients with nutritional substrates essential for the healing process (Langan, 2022). This includes foods rich in protein, vitamin D, and calcium.
There are four phases of a disaster, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Deployment of more medical workers falls under the mitigation phase. This is because the mitigation efforts and nursing outreach occur before the health effects occur (Loke et al., 2021). Administration of antibiotics to wounded patients falls under the response phase. The wounds and fractures of the patients occurred after the catastrophic disaster. Lastly, providing nutritional substrates to recuperating patients is in the recovery phase of a disaster. In this phase, nurses seek to reduce the severity of injuries and diseases established in a patient.
It is essential for nurses and other medical providers to work with specific individuals and agencies to promote health and wellness. I would work with my team leader to identify the most suitable medical providers for primary prevention. I would work with the World Health Organization (WHO) for the secondary intervention. I would work with the American Red Cross branch to ensure patients attain full recovery for tertiary prevention.
Al Harthi, M., Al Thobaity, A., Al Ahmari, W., & Almalki, M. (2020). Challenges for nurses in disaster management: a scoping review. Risk Management and HealthcarePolicy, 13, 2627.
GCU Academics-Nursing. (2016). Diary of Medical Mission Trip Journal 1-5. [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/TDYVqDyBhR4.
Langan, J. (2022). Preparing Nurses for Disaster Management-E-Book: A Global Perspective. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Loke, A. Y., Guo, C., & Molassiotis, A. (2021). Development of disaster nursing education and training programs in the past 20 years (2000–2019): A systematic review. Nurse Education Today, 99, 104809.