NRS 428 Topic 2 DQ 2

Select a global health issue affecting the international health community. Briefly describe the global health issue and its impact on the larger public health care systems (i.e., continents, regions, countries, states, and health departments). Discuss how health care delivery systems work collaboratively to address global health concerns and some of the stakeholders that work on these issues.  

Resources within your text covering international/global health, and the websites in the topic materials, will assist you in answering this discussion question. 

Dian Bowes 

Sep 9, 2022, 10:16 PM 

A global health issue that has affected the globe recently is the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has had devastating impacts on the economic, social, and personal lives of individuals. The health care system was the most impacted as clinicians were the first responders to the pandemic and provided the much-needed first intervention. The public health care system was affected by the lack of vaccinations and the need to engage in contact tracing. Quarantines were established to help prevent the further spread of the virus. Research had to be conducted on how to break the communicable chain of infection. Handwashing and social distancing became critical in helping prevent the spread of the virus (Kitson et al., 2021). Various stakeholders across the globe had to work together to effectively address the pandemic. Given the impact it had on the globe, it became hard for a nation to deal with the pandemic on its own. Global travel and the interconnection between nations further made it challenging to contain the virus spread (Stratton, 2020).  Vaccine distributions became important with countries supporting each other with regard to resource mobilization and distribution. Public health systems across different nations had to work together to prevent mass loss of lives and to allow the world to go back to normal. The impacts of the pandemic were severe on the health care system but also provided key learning lessons.  


Kitson, A., Huisman-de Waal, G., & Muntlin, A. (2021). Lessons from COVID. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(7), e7-e9. 10.1111/jan.14844 

Stratton, S. J. (2020). COVID-19: Not a simple public health emergency. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 35(2), 119-119. 



Maria Delgado 

replied toDian Bowes 

Sep 10, 2022, 1:35 PM 

Hello Dian, 

I enjoyed reading your post; COVID-19 has affected many lives worldwide. Many lost loved ones who were unexpectedly affected by this pandemic. According to (World Health Organization (WHO), 2020) COVID-19 pandemic has led to a dramatic loss of human life worldwide and presents an unprecedented challenge to public health, food systems, and the world of work. The disruption of COVID-19 on our economic and social lives caused by the pandemic is devastating. Tens of millions of people are at risk of falling into extreme poverty (World Health Organization (WHO), 2020). Healthcare workers responded efficiently to the cries of our tired fellow co-workers when COVID was at its peak. The response from multiple countries and our government were good at trying to contain the pandemic by laying out safety regulations to prevent the spread of COVID. Which it continues to be affecting many but with progress in the distribution of vaccines, it’s not as deadly as before. Community health nurses and stakeholders have developed great educational tools and resources in reference to COVID-19. In facilities, we continue to educate on the prevention of COVID.  



World Health Organization (WHO). (2020, October 13). Impact of COVID-19 on people’s livelihoods, their health, and our food systems. Retrieved from World Health Organization (WHO): 



replied toDian Bowes 

Sep 11, 2022, 2:24 PM 

Dian, great post. Although we are 2 years into Covid, we are still seeing many cases within in the community. The levels are not as high and the mortality rates are lower due to vaccinations and the different strains of the virus. We are now starting to see the after effects of Covid. Many health care workers have left the bedside due to burnout rates, high stress levels of high acuity patients, and low staffing ratios. The rates of mental health issues among the health care workers increased due to the pandemic. It is worth considering that in epidemic contexts HCWs are first in line facing the clinical challenges intrinsically linked to the course of the disease while under the constant personal threat of being infected or representing a source of infection ((Carmassi et al., 2020). Although Covid is still affecting many individuals, we as a community must be able to rebuild ourselves and help care for ourselves as we care for our patients.  

Carmassi, C., Foghi, C., Dell’Oste, V., Cordone, A., Bertelloni, C. A., Bui, E., & Dell’Osso, L. (2020, July 20). PTSD symptoms in healthcare workers facing the three coronavirus outbreaks: What can we expect after the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry Research. Retrieved September 11, 2022, from   

  Adefunke Fatilokun 

replied toDian Bowes 

Sep 11, 2022, 7:09 PM 

Great piece Dian, 

The COVID-19 pandemic has put extreme stress on the health care workforce in the United States, leading to workforce shortages as well as increased health care worker burnout, exhaustion, and trauma. These pandemic-related challenges have taken place in a context of significant preexisting workforce shortages and maldistribution, as well as in a workforce where burnout, stress, and mental health problems (including an ongoing risk of post-traumatic stress disorder) were already significant problems. Many health care workers who were not directly caring for COVID-19 patients faced being furloughed or having their hours reduced, particularly early in the pandemic. In May 2020, approximately 15 percent of hospital workers reported being unable to work at some time in the past 4 weeks because their employer closed or lost business due to the pandemic, compared to 23 percent of non-hospital health care workers. These numbers declined to 1-2 percent by the end of 2020. Total employment in the health care industry declined during the early months of the pandemic but has gradually recovered since summer 2020. The relative decline in employment was substantially larger for ambulatory care employees compared to hospital employees (Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 2022). 


Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (2022). Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Hospital and Outpatient Clinician Workforce. Retrieved from 

Vivian Akano 

Sep 9, 2022, 6:33 PM 

Coronavirus pandemic continues to be a worldwide health concern. Coronavirus affects the respiratory system with symptoms including dyspnea, fever, and shortness of breath. In extreme circumstances, it might result in respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2021), more than four million individuals have died as a result of this epidemic. Its influence on the American public health care system has been negative. COVID-19 can affect anybody, and symptoms can range from moderate to quite severe CDC. (2021). There were reports of insufficient personal protective equipment (PPE) and unsafe reuse of PPE by nurses. There was insufficient medical equipment and hospital beds to treat all the ill patients. The national guard had to offer help and relief to the most-affected states. Health care systems throughout the world are exerting great effort to promote immunization against the corona virus. The government and benefactors provided large pharmaceutical firms with funding to produce a viable vaccine in less than one year. The government then acquired the initial batch of vaccinations in order to immunize initially the health care personnel and the most susceptible population members. Currently, more than 4 billion individuals have been immunized (WHO, 2021). Still, there are several individuals who reject taking the COVID 19 vaccination owing to erroneous information or personal preference. 


CDC. (2021). Understanding the risk: 

World Health Organization. (2021). WHO coronavirus (COVID-19) dashboard: 


Clara Eneh 

replied toVivian Akano 

Sep 9, 2022, 11:27 PM 

I have enjoyed reviewing your detailed and insightful post. Indeed, the COVID-19 pandemic led to a dramatic loss of human life worldwide and produced financial hardship and instability. As a result, the world must be prepared for the next and upcoming pandemic – it is not a matter of “if”, but of “when” (Vial et al., 2022). A strategy among the CDC (2020) is contact tracing, where workers speak with the affected and those who were physically close to the infected, in order to contain the spread of disease. A good example of this is the movie Contagion (2011), starring Matt Daemon, Kate Winslet, Jude Law, and Laurence Fishburne. Additionally, the CDC has various world-wide locations across many countries and this helps in international collaboration for containment of disease (Vial et al., 2022). However, larger worldwide efforts are needed among other countries to increase effectiveness. Regards! 




Vial, P., González, C., Icaza, G., Ramirez-Santana, M., Quezada-Gaete, R., Núñez-Franz, L., Apablaza, M., Vial, C., Rubilar, P., Correa, J., Pérez, C., Florea, A., Guzmán, E., Lavín, M., Concha, P., Nájera, M., & Aguilera, X. (2022). Seroprevalence, spatial distribution, and social determinants of SARS-Cov-2 in three urban centers of Chile. BMC Infectious Diseases, 22(1), 127-139. 

  Ana Verdura Cordero 

replied toVivian Akano 

Sep 10, 2022, 11:07 PM 


I agree with that statement about being misinformed. Health information is widely available to the public online when it used to be contained within textbooks. This issues that lies here is that any information can be shared online and in the case of vaccines there have been lots of misinformation and statements made about vaccines that is just not science based. They media and hollywood has even added fuel to the fire towards the anti-vaccine movement with celebrities speaking out of term about vaccines. Having accessible information avaiable to have meaningful conversation with your provider is important, but when it is misused and patients are misguided there is harm to be done (Hussain, A., et al., 2018). 

Even when scientific evidence is available and myths have been debunked, how do we advocate more effectively for the public? 

Hussain, A., Ali, S., Ahmed, M., Hussain, S. (2018). NIH. The Anti-Vaccination Movement: A Regression in Modern Medicine. The Anti-vaccination Movement: A Regression in Modern Medicine ( 

  Adefunke Fatilokun 

replied toVivian Akano 

Sep 11, 2022, 7:14 PM 

Nice work Vivian, 

Many hospitals have reported critical staffing shortages over the course of the pandemic, particularly when case numbers were high. Hospital reporting critical staffing shortages peaked at 22 percent during mid-January 2022. Federal, state, and local governments took significant action to address the need for prevention and treatment services that arose from COVID-19 as well as the disruptions in health care delivery and finances that resulted from the pandemic through supplemental funding from federal relief legislation and easing many regulatory requirements (Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 2022). 


Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (2022). Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Hospital and Outpatient Clinician Workforce. Retrieved from 




Sep 9, 2022, 6:22 PM 

One of the global health issues that has been ongoing for many years is the opioid addiction. In the US alone there has been more than 750,000 deaths since 1999 and 2 out of 3 overdoses will result in death (HHS, 2021). With the increase of prescribed opioids, many have misused medications and have found that opioids have addictive properties. Although many have prescription medications for needed pain management, they long term use of opioids leads to dependency and eventually addiction. One of the side effects of opioids is respiratory depression which can lead to an anoxic brain injury or death. There has been an increase of opioid addiction during pregnancy and infants born addicted to opioids. With the rise in opioid addiction, there has been a need for addiction treatment programs. With the use of grants and in collaboration with the court, inmates that are currently in a program to help fight addiction will provide the funding to local health departments in order to provide the medications needed to the community for their addiction. For example my local health department in Kenosha, Wi uses naltrexone as the preferred medication of use after a person has been through the detox phase. One of the goals of the Kenosha health department uses Naltrexone, an individualized treatment plan, and inclusion of family and other support systems in the recovery plan (Kenosha County Opioid Task Force, n.d.).  

(DCD), D. C. D. (n.d.). Opioid crisis statistics. Retrieved September 9, 2022, from   


Kenosha County Opioid Task Force. Kenosha County Opioid Task Force | Kenosha County, WI – Official Website. (n.d.). Retrieved September 9, 2022, from   


Dian Bowes 


Sep 9, 2022, 8:55 PM 

Great post Marybell. With the rise in opioid addiction, medications such as methadone and buprenorphine have also been found to be effective in reducing the morbidity and mortality related to illicit opioid use. Despite the efficacy of these life-saving medications, most people with opioid use disorder lack access to treatment (Calcaterra et al., 2019). Access to community resources and medications for opioid use disorder is crucial in helping to combat this epidemic. Patient education and health promotion are critical and ongoing parts of opioid recovery. Patient needs will vary based on education level, language barriers, socioeconomic status, disability, and interests, affecting the patient’s ability to receive the information provided (Green, 2018). 


Calcaterra, S. L., Bach, P., Chadi, A., Chadi, N., Kimmel, S. D., Morford, K. L., … & Samet, J. H. (2019). Methadone matters: what the United States can learn from the global effort to treat opioid addiction. Journal of general internal medicine, 34(6), 1039-1042. 


Green, S. (2018). Community as Client. Retrieved from  


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