NRNP 5575 Controversy Associated with Personality and Paraphilic Disorders Walden University

Controversy Associated with Personality and Paraphilic Disorders

Paraphilic disorders are characterized by the presence of strong and persistent sexual thoughts, actions, or cravings that may be distressing to the person experiencing them, impair their ability to function, or even cause damage to others. Based on evidence-based practice, the DSM-V has defined diagnostic criteria for several personality and paraphilic disorders. Despite the limited number of treatments that are now accessible as a result of the little study that has been done on these conditions, this serves the aim of promoting rapid treatment. There are a variety of paraphilic illnesses have been recognized, including voyeurism, sexual masochism, sadomasochism, exhibitionism, pedophilia, transvestism, and fetishism (Perrotta, 2019). Both psychotherapy approaches and pharmaceutical interventions, notably the prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and antiandrogens, are available as treatments for these illnesses. This paper focuses on the ethical and legal issues that are vital in therapeutic practice, as well as the debates surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pedophilic illness.

Controversy Surrounding Pedophilic Disorder

            Considerable controversies have arisen regarding the delineation of pedophilic disorder, with legal, ethical, and scientific viewpoints offering divergent perspectives. Pedophilic disorder is recognized as a genuine psychiatric condition by the ICD-10, and the DSM-V. This diagnosis applies to adult individuals aged 16 years and above who exhibit sexual attraction towards prepubescent children, typically under the age of 13 years, and may pose a risk of harm to them.  In contrast, prevailing cultural and social norms maintain that pedophilia represents morally reprehensible and socially unacceptable conduct, for which individuals are expected to bear the repercussions of their actions (Oronowicz-Jaśkowiak & Lew-Starowicz, 2021). Based on legal perspectives from the United States, Europe, and Canada, it is deemed that any manifestation of pedophilic behavior is regarded as a criminal offense, necessitating the initiation of legal proceedings against the perpetrator. Consequently, the presence of these aforementioned controversies poses significant challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of patients afflicted with this disorder.  

Professional Beliefs about Pedophilic Disorder

            As a healthcare professional, it is my perspective that Pedophilia is a mental disorder that warrants diagnosis according to the criteria delineated in the DSM-V and ICD-10, in conjunction with other relevant clinical guidelines (Perrotta, 2019). It is argued that the timely identification of this disorder can facilitate prompt intervention, thereby fostering favorable outcomes that enhance the mental health and well-being of persons, while also mitigating potential harm to minors (Moser, 2019). Nonetheless, it is imperative to establish a clear distinction between persons who exhibit behaviors indicative of sexual misconduct, and those who experience social distress and challenges related to their sexual desires, which may potentially harm others (Gnanapragasam et al., 2023). The exemption from legal action for sexual offenders should only be granted to persons who meet the criteria for diagnosis.

Maintaining Therapeutic Relationship

            Psychotherapy is considered the primary treatment modality for persons diagnosed with pedophilia, as supported by the evidence-based approach. To facilitate favorable outcomes, the psychiatrist must establish and cultivate a robust therapeutic alliance with the patient (Pukall et al., 2019). The implementation of effective communication strategies, characterized by the utilization of a compassionate, empathetic, and impartial demeanor, has the potential to enhance the patient’s sense of assurance and reliance on the psychiatrist (Bradford et al., 2020). To effectively involve the patient and acquire the essential information required to gain a comprehensive understanding of the patient’s condition, the psychiatrist must exhibit active listening abilities and maintain an unbiased perspective. Ultimately, it is crucial to provide comprehensive education to the patient regarding the pedophilic condition and the potential advantages of the diverse treatment modalities to enhance their confidence in the entirety of the medical intervention.

Ethical and Legal Considerations

            Clinicians frequently encounter a central legal challenge when providing care for persons with pedophilia, namely the preservation of the patient’s entitlement to privacy and confidentiality. Determining the appropriate timing for disclosing a patient’s information to the authorities poses a challenging task, as it entails navigating a complex landscape of ethical and legal implications (Moser, 2019). For example, persons who are attracted to minors but do not engage in illegal activities are permitted to pursue mental health treatment, provided that their entitlement to confidentiality and personal privacy is upheld. Nevertheless, it is imperative to acknowledge that psychiatrists are legally obligated to disclose information regarding persons who have committed acts of pedophilia, thereby infringing upon their right to privacy (Gnanapragasam et al., 2023). Consequently, the psychiatrist encounters difficulty in discerning between the two scenarios due to the shared possibility of harm to children.

Conclusion

            The comprehension of paraphilic conditions is often challenging for people due to the presence of divergent perspectives stemming from cultural, social, scientific, and legal domains. In contrast, while community and state laws perceive pedophilia as criminal behavior that warrants legal intervention against the offender, the DSM-V and other clinical standards categorize this behavior as a mental disorder. Nevertheless, scholarly investigations have demonstrated that persons afflicted with pedophilic disorder may experience significant advantages from interventions aimed at improving their psychological well-being and overall state of health.

References

Bradford, J. M., Firestone, P., & Ahmed, A. G. (2020). The Paraphilic Disorders and Psychopathy. The Wiley International Handbook on Psychopathic Disorders and the Law, 671-691. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119159322.ch29

Moser, C. (2019). DSM-5, Paraphilias, and the Paraphilic Disorders: Confusion Reigns. Archives of Sexual Behavior48(3), 681–689. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-018-1356-7

Oronowicz-Jaśkowiak, W., & Lew-Starowicz, M. (2021). Personality variables among sexual offenders with and without a diagnosis of paraphilic disorders. European Psychiatry64(S1), S380-S381. doi:10.1192/j.eurpsy.2021.1020

Perrotta, G. (2019). Paraphilic Disorder: Definition, Contexts and Clinical Strategies. Neuro Research1(1), 1–15. https://www.jneuro.org/full-text/paraphilic-disorder-definition-contexts-and-clinical-strategies

Pukall, C. F., Eccles, T., & Gauvin, S. (2019). Sexual Dysfunctions, Gender Dysphoria, and Paraphilic Disorders. Diagnostic Interviewing, 349–373. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9127-3_14

Sam Nishanth Gnanapragasam, Scott, F., & Dinesh Bhugra. (2023). Sexual Dysfunctions, Gender Dysphoria, and Paraphilic Disorders. 711–725. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-15401-0_2

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