Introduction: The Liberation Health Triangle is a framework for understanding and addressing health issues that goes beyond just the physical symptoms of the illness. It takes into account the broader social and political context that impacts a person’s health, including issues such as poverty, discrimination, and access to healthcare. In this assignment, you will use the Liberation Health Triangle to assess a case of opioid use disorder, looking at the person’s physical, mental, and social well-being and the broader systemic factors that contribute to the problem.
Here are some commonly used opioids and their corresponding brand names and generic names:
Codeine (generic name): Tylenol with Codeine, Capital and Codeine, Robitussin AC
Fentanyl (generic name): Duragesic, Actiq, Sublimaze
Hydrocodone (generic name): Vicodin, Lortab, Lorcet
Hydromorphone (generic name): Dilaudid, Exalgo
Meperidine (generic name): Demerol
Methadone (generic name): Dolophine, Methadose
Morphine (generic name): Kadian, MS Contin, Avinza
Oxycodone (generic name): OxyContin, Percocet, Percodan
Tramadol (generic name): Ultram, Ultracet
Opioids are a class of drugs that act on the nervous system to produce pain relief, euphoria, and sedation. They include both prescription painkillers and illegal drugs such as heroin. Here are some of the effects of opioids, along with specific concerns related to fentanyl lacing:
Pain Relief: Opioids are most commonly used for their pain-relieving effects. They can reduce the intensity of pain signals to the brain, making them a valuable tool for managing chronic pain conditions.
Euphoria: Opioids can also produce a sense of euphoria, which can be pleasurable and reinforcing. This can make them highly addictive and increase the risk of opioid use disorder.
Sedation: Opioids can cause drowsiness and sedation, which can lead to slowed breathing and other respiratory problems.
Nausea and Vomiting: Opioids can cause nausea and vomiting, particularly when taken in high doses or for an extended period of time.
Constipation: Opioids can slow down the digestive system, leading to constipation.
Respiratory Depression: Opioids can suppress breathing, which can be dangerous or even fatal. This is a particular concern with fentanyl, which is much more potent than other opioids and can be deadly even in very small doses.
Overdose: Overdose is a serious risk with all opioids, but it is particularly concerning with fentanyl. Even a small amount of fentanyl can be deadly, and it is often mixed with other drugs without the user’s knowledge.
Almost 90% of people who need the services of a drug treatment program do not receive it (Generes 2022). Opioid use dependence is difficult to treat effectively. The recidivism (relapse) rate is high, but the longer one is off drugs, the more likely one will remain abstinent. One benefit of treatment is that addicts live longer (Generes 2022).
Those with opioid use dependence do not have to be consigned to a lifetime of addiction. Many mature or grow out of drug use. Treatment programs range from psychotherapy to behavior modification to acupuncture to medical intervention.
Withdrawal from narcotics is not as life-threatening or as severe as many people believe. Most addicts are withdrawn from narcotics gradually, although rapid detoxification can be just as effective. Unfortunately, most patients undergoing detoxification fail to complete the program. Freeing one’s body of drugs does not remove the person’s desire to take drugs.
To help people in withdrawal, they receive drugs such as clonidine, buprenorphine, naltrexone, naloxone, and the best known, methadone. Clonidine was used to treat hypertension initially, and it was found also to eliminate some drug withdrawal symptoms. Naloxone reduces the amount of time addicts require to undergo withdrawal, but it triggers withdrawal more suddenly.
Typically, detoxification is completed in 10 to 14 days if it is conducted on an inpatient basis. Federal guidelines allow methadone to b
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