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Respond to student’s response to question 1 discussion board: Discussion Board Question 1: A 55-year-old female is diagnosed with a malignant neoplasm. Discuss at least two major differences between benign and malignant neoplasms (20 points). The patient’s healthcare provider explains that the neoplastic cells exhibit “rapid proliferation” and “loss of differentiation.” Discuss these two characteristics in detail (20 points). Identify and discuss two other cancer cell characteristics that are different from non-cancer cells (20 points). (Student’s Response To Question 1) A neoplasm commonly known as a tumor is a group of cells that undergo uncontrolled abnormal growth in tissues. There are two types of neoplasms: benign and malignant. Benign neoplasm cells are well differentiated and do not metastasize throughout the body. Malignant neoplasms are undifferentiated cells that metastasize throughout the body. Rapid proliferation is an increased rate of cell division. Proliferation is a process in which mitotic cell division occurs. It is usually a regulated process that replaces the exact number of dying cells with new active cells. With a malignant neoplasm, the cell proliferation is quick and the normal regulation process is not in place; causing a buildup of cells. Loss of differentiation also known as anaplasia, is a cell losing its specialized cell type. Cell differentiation is when cells mature and undergo a process where cells gain their characteristics. For example, “the red blood cell is a terminally differentiated cell that has been programmed to develop into a concave disk which functions as a vehicle for oxygen transport” ( Norris, 2019, p.104). With the occurrence of cell differentiation loss in malignant neoplasms, the cell is immature and does not have any specific functions. The more the cell is differentiated the more rapid the cell’s growth rate is. Another cancer cell characteristic is cell lifespan. In a non-cancer cell, the cell undergoes a normal process of apoptosis (cell death) after dividing a certain amount of times. Cancer cells are immortal and can divide an infinite amount of times. Genetic growth factor independence is another process that occurs in cancer cells. In normal cells, the cell needs growth hormone factors to grow. In cancer cells, the cells can grow without growth hormone factors. Citation: Norris, T. L. (2019). Porth’s pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States. Wolters Kluwer.



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